What is Metabolic Syndrome?
Metabolic Syndrome is a group of medical conditions that increase someone’s risk for diabetes, heart disease and stroke. These medical conditions include: high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, abnormal blood sugar levels and a large waist circumference.
If you have at least three of these conditions you could be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.
What are possible symptoms?
In most cases of metabolic syndrome there are no symptoms. However, in individual conditions, such as diabetes, you may experience symptoms of low or high blood sugar.
What are risk factors for developing Metabolic Syndrome?
- Abdominal obesity
- Greater or equal to 40 inch waist in men
- Greater or equal to 35 inch waist in women
- Blood pressure is greater or equal to 130/85mmHg
- Fasting blood sugar is greater or equal to 100mg/mL
- Triglyceride levels are greater or equal to 150mg/mL
- HDL cholesterol less than 40mg/mL in men or less than 50mg/mL in women
- Genetic factors such as a family history of Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and early heart disease, influence the chance of someone developing metabolic syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes
- Cardiovascular disease
- Increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia
- Metabolic syndrome has been associated with disorders that are related to obesity such as fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and obstructive sleep apnea.
What are possible treatments?
The goal is to treat the underlying conditions, for example:
- Blood pressure control
- Blood sugar control
- Cholesterol and Triglyceride control
- Weight management
- Exercise and healthy eating can aid in treating all the conditions listed above.
Where can I get more information?
For additional information, please seek further guidance from your primary care provider or endocrinologist.
American Heart Association. (2016). About metabolic syndrome.
Meigs, J.B. (2018). The Metabolic Syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X) In D.M. Nathan, J.I. Wolfsdorf & D. J. Sullivan (Eds.), UptoDate
Stoppler, M.C. (2017). Metabolic Syndrome.